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Photograph accessed 15 September 2015 from. The cracking of the Pantheon has been heavily documented and mapped and a design study by Mark and Hutchinson has this to say about it: “Terenzio [an Italian superintendent of monuments who documented the cracks in 1930] also identified fractures reaching from the base of the rotunda to the summit of the dome that he thought were brought about by differential settlement from uneven loading of the wall, particularly near the entrance of the rotunda in the principal niche. This circle and square pattern of design is prevalent throughout the Pantheon, as also seen by the design of the tiles in the floor. Crossref Citations. Bronze head from a statue of the Emperor Hadrian. Rectangular coffers, or indentations, were cut in the ceiling, probably under Severus, and decorated with bronze rosettes and molding. Applications are usually available via the UW Study Abroad website in about December of even years. You walk around a street corner just like any other Roman street corner and then, Bam!, the Pantheon is right there. Cassius Dio, an ancient Roman historian who published 80 volumes on Roman history in the early 200’s, acknowledges this commonly accepted interpretation and presents his own ideas on the name of the Pantheon: “It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens.” (Thayer, n.d.). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. accessed 13 September 2015 from, Hudelson, M. no date. To construct the foundation they first dug circular trenches and lined them with wooden boards to create the mold for the concrete. The rosetta stone and Half Dome in Yosemite are also made of granodiorate (National Parks). The emperor Hadrian, under whose direction this building was constructed, apparently loved the building and loved to actually have visitors come to him here. The cavities and niches in the walls divide the rotunda into what is essentially a series of eight concrete piers, where the concrete is thickest, strongest, and supports the majority of the load. The Pantheon. Chapter. The colors of the bricks are determined by the temperature it is burned at and the chemical composition, specifically the concentration of iron oxide, alumina, and calcium. Corrections? If this were to occur, the walls of the Pantheon would be put under a large amount of bending stress, and this could cause the concrete to crack and fail in shear. With such a massive structure as the Pantheon, it was important to make sure the foundation was capable of supporting all the weight of the concrete, bricks, and marble above it. After the form was removed, the void below would be filled in with brick and concrete. While it is difficult to determine exactly who built the Pantheon, how, and when, there seems to be a majority consensus on the history as follows. Attached at the rear of the Pantheon is a small structure, called the grottoni, which is a brick building consisting of 6 interior walls, 2 floors, overhead vaults, and a bridge-like connection to the rotunda about 2/3 of the way up. Such geometrical relation draws to the mind Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian man, the ideal human form defined by a circle and square. This was done, not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa’s part to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the public good; hence Augustus, so far from censuring him for it, honoured them the more.” (Thayer, n.d.). The rings were laid and dried on top of each other, then forms were built the lay the circular dome on as they built up, creating special forms for the coffers as they went. The concrete was similar to as I described it in the Foundation Materials section above, but they changed what type of aggregate they used. Alter Eagle. Back in the time of Imperial Rome, as shown in the map above, the Pantheon was located in Agrippa’s personal property in Campus Martius, near the Baths of Nero to the North and the Baths of Agrippa to the South. 119 × 98.4 cm. The Pantheon is a marvel of construction ingenuity- the result of a century of experimentation with the use of advanced building elements such as the relieving arch, vaulting rib, lightweight caementa, and step rings. For the Pantheon, such adjustments included varying shaft heights and widths. rom the Contents: Preface; Part I. The Pantheon was a part of the building complex sponsored by Agrippa, built on his own property, that also included a temple to the god of the sea, Neptune, and a public bath. The Pantheon is a monumental pagan temple of gods that became a basilica with a tremendously complex history. The Pantheon. It is a synthesis of construction techniques. Hadrian even kept Agrippa’s original inscription over the portico of his new Pantheon: M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIVM FECIT (roughly translating to: Marcus Agrippa the son of Lucius, three times consul, built this). Whether it was talking about its marshy foundation, the design of the dome, the cracking, or all the improvisation that occurred with features such as the columns being too short or the additional grottini structure in the rear, I couldn’t help but be drawn into the depth and range of engineering genius that went into designing and constructing the Pantheon. The Roman Pantheon is the largest (43.4m dia.) There are openings at various levels, chambers, and passageways throughout the the rotunda wall. What is particularly unique to the Pantheon however is the method by which these elements were incorporated into a structural system that has allowed the largest … Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec. For the Pantheon, such adjustments included varying shaft heights and widths. Round temples were typically dedicated to Vesta. Agrippa’s Pantheon stood until the fire of 80, and Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon in the same manner and to serve the same purpose as its predecessor. The present-day Pantheon is located on the site of an earlier structure of the same name, constructed around 25 B.C. The Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian during the period 118 to 128 A.D. (a time given by Ward-Perkins). The oldest building in Rome, today the Pantheon stands as a monument to ancient Roman ingenuity and a puzzle of history. Photograph. The bricks would be formed into standard shapes as shown below; bessales, sesquipedales, and biedales. At 43.2m, the height of the building is exactly the same as the width, meaning that a perfect sphere would fit inside. As is seen in the picture below, this strange triangular outline, mirroring the shape of the current portico just below it, has led to much speculation as to why it is there. So, it appears that the cracks in the dome are not a major concern as the stresses are within a safe design limit, but the cracks are still being monitored and there is discussion of adding a protective steel band around the base to prevent dislocation during an event such as an earthquake. Here they offered sacrifices to protect life on earth and the family. No author, no date. The sheer size, complexity, and appealing aesthetics are undeniably jaw-dropping. Note the columns supporting the stone beams and arches, and the wood trusses holding up the roof. The second ring was 3 meters wide and resulted in a final concrete ring foundation of about 10.2 meters (Moore, 1995). The Pantheon still retains a record however: it is the world’s largest concrete dome suspended without reinforcement. The different types of bricks would also be broken up into triangles, as shown by the lines across the bricks in the picture below, and this was done to provide various different sized bricks to fit certain jobs. The Cult Statues of the Pantheon. Capstans at the ground level would feed the cords through pulleys to effectively tension the wood beams, and pull the column from a lying horizontal position to its vertical standing position. In the year 117, Hadrian began the tremendous undertaking that was the construction of the Pantheon. The bricks are heated at high temperature for about 2 hours to complete the chemical transformation. Built on the site that Romulus, Rome’s mythological founder, was storied to have ascended into heaven (Parker, 2009), Agrippa’s original Pantheon was thought to be used for the glorification of the gens Iulia, one of the most highly dignified patrician families of ancient Rome. by statesman Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law of the first Roman emperor, Augustus.Traditionally thought to have been designed as a temple for Roman gods, the structure’s name is derived from the Greek words pan, meaning “all,” and theos, meaning “gods.”The original Pantheon was destroyed in a fire around 80 A.D. According to Cassius Dio, this was not the original intention, as he describes below, Agrippa initially wanted to dedicate his temple to Augustus: “Agrippa, for his part, wished to place a statue of Augustus there also and to bestow upon him the honour of having the structure named after him; but when the emperor wouldn’t accept either honour, he placed in the temple itself a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room statues of Augustus and himself. Most often these materials were found in abundance and shipped from relatively nearby to Rome The lime was made from limestone, consisting of mostly calcium carbonate, that was heated in a kiln to undergo a chemical reaction and release the gas in the limestone. The Pantheon’s columns were of typical Roman column style, but were larger than many columns used at this period of time, so it was quite the feat to create, transport, and erect them. One could imagine him even in the back apse opposite the entrance. The first structural foundation of the Pantheon was laid between 27 and 25 BC. The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. We love meeting interesting people and making new friends. Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli: A virtual tour. The largest of loads would require reduction gear, including the use of capstans to tension the boom arms. I didn’t begin with much of an idea on what to write my paper on, and I didn’t know a whole lot about the Pantheon in particular before this trip. Introduction . It looks like the front of a Greek temple. Though their functions i simple, the sheer size of the columns and the fact that they are each made out of single stones make the story and creation of the columns quite complex . It was built by the emperor Hadrian almost 2,000 years ago. The people I met, the places I saw, and the things I learned are all indescribable memories that will be one thing I will be happy to always owe to the hard work and goodwill of UW, the Civil Engineering Department, and the faculty that put the program together, especially including Steve, Heta, and everyone at the UW Rome Center. Along with other strong structural reasons as described later, the Pantheon’s status as a Christian church provided it with a more consistent and careful maintenance practice than other non-sacred or pagan sites that were left to be pilfered and unmaintained after the fall of Rome and its ensuing long dark ages (MacDonald 1976). A series of geometrical proportions are the structure. The porch is conventional in design, but the body of the building, an immense circular space lit solely by the light that floods through the 27-foot (8-metre) “eye,” or oculus, opening at the centre of the dome, was revolutionary; possibly this was the first of several great buildings of antiquity that were designed to favour the interior rather than the exterior. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. CrossRef; Google Scholar; Google Scholar Citations . See the stepping of the exterior and the coffering of the interior. The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. Whether it was a mistake during cutting at the quarry, the taller columns broke, or some other reason, it is unknown why they had to use these shorter columns. This was considered a most un-emperorlike thing to do; write someone else’s name on your building, but it was possibly a way to give credit to and remember Agrippa’s original concept for the Pantheon. They then compacted the concrete over layers of rock pieces and allowed to dry (Parker, 2009). The dome was created from poured concrete using a system of interior scaffolding and framework. See the ledges marking the cornices just below the rectangular openings (photo by author), How bricks undergo chemical changes with heat. Copyright © 2020. Chapter; Aa; Aa; Access; Cited by 1; Cited by. Architecture of the Pantheon. Engineering Rome is a UW Exploration Seminar that covers Roman and Italian engineering over a range of 3,000 years from Ancient Rome to the present day. The Tholos was an underground domed tomb used since Neolithic times. Photograph. The walls contain internal and external relieving arches that, along with 8 very large niches in the interior, divide the wall into a series of concrete piers. I could never thank everyone, nor could I thank them enough, but I wholeheartedly recommend this program to any student fortunate enough to have the opportunity to participate in this program. There is no external evidence of brick arch support inside the dome, except in the lowest part, and the exact method of construction has never been determined. The Pantheon. The original Pantheon was built by Agrippa, Augustus' most successful general, in 27 BC. As the brick stamps on the side of the building reveal it was built and dedicated between A.D 118 and 125. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Sacred Destinations - Pantheon, Rome, Italy, Pantheon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The relieving arches in the brick walls of the rotunda After discussing some background information in the next sections, I will present some information to expose some of these techniques and methods that allowed for the creation and survival of the Pantheon. Building the Pantheon was a dream that turned nightmarish, though in the end it sends all who enter into reveries. Excavations in the nineteenth century and from 1995 to 1997 showed that there is a lower … Roman Design and Construction: 3. This is the currently selected item. Equestrian Sculpture of Marcus Aurelius. The compaction was important to making the concrete strong and durable because a chemical reaction must take place and the compaction of the concrete pushes the molecules closer together by removing any air gaps and extra water. 1 The diameter of the Temple of Diana, part of a thermal complex, is fractionally greater than 29.5 meters, or 100 Roman feet. The walls at Pompeii are another example of the Romans sparing use of foundational support, because there is no discernible foundation for the 8 meter high and 5.5 meter thick wall. This original design, where the foundation was only about 1.2 meters wider than the 31.7 meter tall walls it would support, which makes Moore suggest that the Romans may not have fully understood how much sinking could occur and how much of a foundation would be needed. The word “Pantheon” in fact comes from the Greek and literally means (temple) “of all Gods” (“pan” = “all” and “theon” = “divine”).However, Agrippa’s original construction was damaged by two fires, in 80 A.D. and 120 A.D. and was completely rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 125 A.D., preserved substa… Pantheon, building in Rome that was begun in 27 bc by the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, probably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple type—rectangular with a gabled roof supported by a colonnade on all sides. While it is great to look at and admire the dome, when you start to analyze and breakdown all the engineering involved with its construction, it only gets more impressive. The Pantheon in Rome is a true architectural wonder. For example, the Byzantine emperor Constans II robbed the Pantheon of its bronze roof tiles in 663, Pope Urban VIII had two hundred tons of bronze from the porch removed to make eighty cannons for Castel Sant’Angelo in the 1620’s, and in the seventeenth century, twin towers where constructed above the portico and then removed in the 1880’s. To construct the rotunda, a repetitive cycle was used: the brick walls would be built up slightly, layering bricks and mortar, then aggregate would be placed in a layer, lime and pozzolan mortar would be placed on top, the concrete would be compacted, then let to dry. The structure has been an enduring source of inspiration to architects since the Renaissance. Rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, the second Pantheon was struck by lightning and burned down again in the year 110 (Parker, 2009). The Pantheon at Rome is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome.. With all the niches, cavities and relieving arches to provide for these features, the walls of the Pantheon don’t necessarily behave like a typical solid wall. The dome of the Pantheon is made of concrete, but it is not uniform throughout. The dome has a sizable diameter of 142 ft. Of course, they did add more foundation after the first ring cracked, but it is uncertain what has prevented the destruction of the structure, whether it be the lack of stress concentrations points on the foundation, very strong concrete, and/or something else (Moore 1995). ... Hadrian, Building the wall. In the pictures below, you can see the stepped ring pattern seen at the exterior base of the dome, the interior coffering, and some possible representations of how they could have constructed the scaffolding and framework for laying the concrete of the dome. Yet because of its significance and breathtaking wonder, the Pantheon has been the subject of much study and analysis. The portico and dome combination has influenced Western architectural design for centuries. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Until modern times, the dome was the largest built, measuring about 142 feet (43 metres) in diameter and rising to a height of 71 feet (22 metres) above its base. Greek influence in Roman architecture is significant. It is fairly humbling considering that the Romans knew nothing of molecular chemistry, their concrete was made through trial and error, yet they were able to come up with concrete comparable to modern concrete, that is in terms of the types of materials used to make it, but not necessarily comparable to modern concrete’s far superior strength. The Pantheon. The columns were mined out in one piece each from Egypt’s mountainous quarries of Mons Claudianus. The first version, built by Emperor Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, was said to have been a T-shaped building, constructed around 27 BC and burned down in the fire of the year 80. Currently in Rome’s business district, the Pantheon is located in Campo Marzo (Campus Martius), surrounded by restaurants and a public square, with Piazza Navona a few blocks to the West. Major Advances in Knowledge About the Pantheon; Part II. The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. This gives the Pantheon the impression of balance and harmony. The building is a combination of a circle and a rectangle. Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. It was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian sometime between ad 118 and 128, and some alterations were made in the early 3rd century by the emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla. The reason they varied the weight of the concrete of the dome at different levels was to make the dome lighter with cheaper material while still providing enough structural support. Rotunda. Originally the Pantheon was built by Agrippa between 27 and 25 BC and he dedicated it to the worship of all the Olympians. The construction of the current Pantheon was carried out during the reign of Hadrian, in the year 126 A.D. They used the heaviest aggregate, mostly basalt, at the bottom and lighter materials, such as pumice, at the top. Today, nearly 2,000 years after its construction, the Pantheon still shows no signs of settling or cracking. This chapter has been cited by the following publications. You can't see the dome at the front, so there's a sense of surprise when you walk into it. The pediment is made of cut stone and supported by wood beams in the interior. A perfect half circle of coffered concrete in the interior leading up to the oculus open to the sky, the dome probably the most defining feature of the Pantheon. However, this did not stop all the settlement and mortar creep in the Pantheon walls. The construction of the current Pantheon was carried out during the reign of Hadrian, in the year 126 A.D. You may already know this building. After burning for days, the product in the kiln was a soft quicklime that, when mixed with water, becomes pasty and hardens as it dries. He mentions that some of these machines are set upright in a stationary position, while some have revolving booms. It is the early experimentation with dome construction that has made Rome's Pantheon important in architectural history. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. The original Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC under the Roman Empire, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building.. As a fairly simple structure, the massive columns of the Pantheon support the beams that make up the underside of the portico roof above. Stanford University. Photograph. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. A traditional rectangular temple, first built by AgrippaThe conventional understanding of the Pantheon’s genesis, which held from 1892 until very recently, goes something like this. The Treasury of Atreuswas constructed around 1250 BC. The present building was completed by the emperor Hadrian, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD) which had burnt down. The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Agrippa built the original Pantheon in honor of his and Augustus’ military victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E.—one of the defining moments in the establishment of the Roman Empire (Augustus would go on to become the first Emperor of Rome). Despite these many attempts to avoid excessive stress in the dome by reducing the weight, the Pantheon’s dome is cracked in many places. (Macdonald, 1976). See the pictures below for visual explanation of the types of scaffolding (Moore 1995). Construction of the Pantheon . The dome of the Pantheon stacks in ribs like the Tholos to form a drum, but then a proper concrete dome like that of the common circular temple completes the dome. Left: Stairway to Heaven being played outside the Pantheon one day while passing by (video from author)Right: That is the Pantheon. Pantheon, building in Rome that was begun in 27 BC by the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, probably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple style. Mark Wilson Jones (1987) offers a possibly explanation to this odd aesthetic; they originally planned to use even larger columns. See thick pier areas vs. the niches and cavities (MacDonald, 1976), A diagram of the arches directing load to the piers (Lancaster, 2006), Relieving arches in the brick walls of the rotunda (photo by author), The grottoni in the rear of the Pantheon (photo by author), How the columns may have been erected (Sahotsky, n.d.), Another method of column raising(Sahotsky, n.d.), The underside of the pediment. By making the dome weigh less near the top, but by making the bottom of the dome heavier, it provided more support, at the bottom where it was needed, for the lateral thrust from the load of the rest of the dome above (Lancaster, 2006). Photograph. It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome.. Due to the fact that the concrete is in the shape of a dome, it is subject to tension by means of hoop stress and, as concrete performs more poorly in tension than in compression, the hoop stress has resulted in cracks in the dome and walls of the Pantheon. That alone is a testament to the quality of the Roman engineering techniques that went into creating the Pantheon. Also, while the wall looks like it is made of bricks, the bricks are just a thin outer layer, the majority of the material in the walls is concrete, which provides the structural support and strength of the walls. accessed 14 September 2015 from, No author, no date. Equestrian Sculpture of Marcus Aurelius. 2 After the drum was constructed, the rectangular intermediate block was created to connect the circular part of the structure to the temple-like porch. While the dome is obviously still standing, the cracks have contributed to the top of the dome having slumped about 60 centimeters. Updates? At the bottom they used heavier rocks like basalt and at the top they used lighter rocks such as pumice (Parker, 2009). At the approximate position where the Parthenon was built later, the Athenians began the construction of a building that was burned by the Persians while it was still under construction in 480 BCE. Originally the dome was covered with a layer of bronze plates, but those were since removed and replaced with lead plates. Improvements in the tecnique used for cutting stones led to the construction of walls with stones having the same size (Isodomum - Vitruvius - De Architectura). 1 online earthmoving marketplace. Vitruvius also describes an instrument of laminated wood and supporting cords that resembles a fulcrum lever mechanism. Along with statues of Augustus and Caesar, members of gens Iulia, Agrippa’s Pantheon also contained statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus. 3 In antiquity, construction involved refinement and compensation, especially when creating a monumental structure like the Pantheon. They would have already built the rotunda walls when they made this construction change, so they had already made the outline for the designed pediment, hence the second, taller outline you can see today (Jones, 1987). The Pantheon was dedicated in ad 609 as the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda, or Santa Maria ad Martyres, which it remains today. But by analyzing the stamps on the bricks that make up the rotunda, most historians feel confident that the current Pantheon was built by Hadrian and not during the reign of Agrippa, as the inscription might seem to suggest (MacDonald 1976). 10 Facts about the Pantheon. Different mixes of concrete were used at different levels as you move up the dome, heavier materials lower at the base and lighter weight materials up near the top. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). I could never express my gratitude enough for, or even understand the depth of, all the hard work that went into starting and running this program, but I truly appreciate the dedication and commitment to providing the opportunity for us students to travel and learn about Roman engineering. p.68-87. While it is difficult to determine exactly who built the Pantheon, how, and when, there seems to be a majority consensus on the history as follows. 19 The internal area of the rotunda may also have been used in the early stages of construction. Built around 125 A.D. by the Roman emperor Publius Aelius Hadrianus, it was actually the third iteration of the structure. Subscribe to Naked Science – Some experts believe that this is one of the most important buildings the world has ever seen. As a way to quickly fix this, they constructed the grottoni to hold up and support the walls against leaning and collapse due to further settlement. This inscription has caused confusion when trying to date the construction and builder of the Pantheon. Photograph. The Pantheon you see today is the third rendition of the “church of every god” that had been adapted and modified through the centuries. The Pantheon The Pantheon boasted the worlds largest dome when it was built. retrieved from UW Catalyst Engineering Rome Resources page, Analysis of the Major Sections of the Pantheon,,,*/Pantheon.html,*.html,,,,,,,,, Telescopic view of the interior of the Pantheon (, Imperial Rome: the Pantheon is in the upper left area (, The Geometry and Dimensions (in meters) of the rotundaand the dome (Martines, 2009), The inscription on the portico of the Pantheon (Photo by author), The Christian altar in the Pantheon(photo by author), The exterior of the rotunda walls. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. Form and construction. Because of this rich, and often incompletely recorded history, the story of the Pantheon can be muddled with confusion and mystery. To construct the dome took a lot of planning and Roman engineering technique, work that paid off, as the dome still stands today. Major Advances in Knowledge About the Pantheon; Part II. Preliminary Considerations; 2. The concrete used to make the foundation is pozzolan concrete, which consists of travertine aggregate in layers, held together by a mortar of lime and pozzolan (Moore, 1995). There is an interesting theory about the structure attached to the rear of the rotunda that suggests that the Pantheon dealt with some major settlement at some point during construction and they needed to improvise a way to remedy it. (Photo by author), Reconstruction of Pantheon as it may have looked, showing portico and statues (Hudelson, n.d.), The Pantheon today, see the second cornice outlining the planned pediment above the existing pediment (, The theoretical sphere, cube, and cylinder of the Pantheon (, Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man (, Pantheon floor and hte circle and square geometry (Photo by author), Geometry and dimensions (meters) of rotunda and dome. Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec. Arches are used throughout the structure to add strength without adding too much weight to the foundation. The first historically documented construction of the Pantheon was begun in 27 BCE by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BCE – 12 BCE) a military commander and close collaborator of the Emperor Augustus. The interior of the dome is lined with 5 bands of coffers, rectangular spaces left out of the dome to save weight and material (Moore, 1995). The first building was built by Marcus Agrippa around 27 AD to celebrate the victory of his father-in-law, the emperor Augustus, at Actium over Antony and Cleopatra. However, at the very least, credit is given to Hadrian for the concept and grand ambitious uniqueness of the Pantheon (MacDonald, 1976). Each column is 11.8 m tall, 1.5 m in diameter, and weigh about 60 tons. The stepped rings provided most of the buttressing support of the lateral thrust from the dome. A now barely visible inscription on the architrave acknowledges the restoration of the Pantheon by Severus and Caracalla during the year 202 (Platner, n.d.). The scaffolding could be of three types: independent scaffolding that stood on its own and did not need to be supported by another structure, dependent scaffolding which was inserted into holes strategically placed in the structure and was fully supported by the structure that they were using the scaffolding to build, and semi-dependent scaffolding that was a mixture of both; supported by both the ground and the structure being built. The 140 coffers are rectangular slots left out of the dome to save a little weight and material, but also add an artistic perspective scene.

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