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sepia officinalis uk

In rough weather, cuttlebones are often found washed up on beaches. (2007) showed that Sepia officinalis was the second most discarded species under the top ten most discarded English Channel species by beam trawlers. Observations on by-catch from a tuna trap fishery off the Algarve (southern Portugal). & Andrade, J.P., 2001. Poirier, R., Chichery, R. & Dickel, L., 2004. The information (TEXT ONLY) provided by the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN) is licensed under a, Snails, slugs, mussels, cockles, clams & squid, Conservation of Species and Habitats Regulations, Species of Principal Importance (England), Marine Evidence based Sensitivity Assessment (MarESA) (Summary), Marine Biological Association of the UK (MBA), Water flow (tidal current) changes (local), Transition elements & organo-metal contamination, Physical loss (to land or freshwater habitat), Physical change (to another sediment type), Habitat structure changes - removal of substratum (extraction), Abrasion/disturbance of the surface of the substratum or seabed, Penetration or disturbance of the substratum subsurface, Changes in suspended solids (water clarity), Smothering and siltation rate changes (light), Smothering and siltation rate changes (heavy), Genetic modification & translocation of indigenous species, Introduction or spread of invasive non-indigenous species, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T162664A939991.en, http://www.seafish.org/media/publications/SR672ERAEFSupporting_information.pdf, http://britishseafishing.co.uk/common-cuttlefish/, http://www.seafish.org/geardb/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/project_50_printed_final_report.pdf, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/anatomy-cuttlefish.html, https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Sepia_officinalis, http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication Reports/Expert Group Report/SSGEPD/2017/01 WGCEPH - Report of the Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History.pdf, http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication Reports/Expert Group Report/SSGEF/2012/WGCEPH12.pdf, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/minimum-conservation-reference-sizes-mcrs/minimum-conservation-reference-sizes-mcrs-in-uk-waters, http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ac479e/ac479e00.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Behavioural Processes, 67, 273-279. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. 5% Mother Tincture in a non-aqueous oily base containing: Almond Oil and Beeswax. While children may be lively and excitable, adults are inclined to weariness, indifference, hardness, and irritability. Aquaculture Research, 32, 923-930. du Sel, G.P. Refers to the increased levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the marine environment. Sepia officinalis migrates to deep water to breed and returns to coastal waters to spawn. Scientific name: Sepia officinalis Also known as: European Cuttlefish, European Common Cuttlefish; Size: Up to 50cm in length; Distribution: Found all around the UK but much more common in the southern areas of England and Ireland. Cuttlefish in captivity: an investigation into housing and husbandry for improving welfare. Paulij, W.P., Herman, P.M.J., Roozen, M.E.F. Many eggs are laid on cuttletraps during spawning periods. Marine Biology, 163 , 78. Vie et milieu, 56, 97-107. Females are ‘intermittent terminal spawners’ as they lay eggs in separate batches (Rocha et al, 2001). On the life cycle of Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda, Sepioidea) in the ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Get the best deals for sepia homeopathy at eBay.com. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, 64(3), 735-737. London WC2N 4LJ 2.1 Effectiveness. Common cuttlefishes, Sepia officinalis, are found in the Mediterranean, and North and Baltic Seas, although populations have been proposed to occur as far south as the South Africa.They are found in sublittoral depths (between the low tide line and the edge of the continental shelf, to about 100 fathoms or 200 m). Trends in age-at-recruitment and juvenile growth of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, from the English Channel. 2006. Prey size is also selective, with adult Sepia officinalis choosing fish 25-80% and crabs 20-40% the size of their mantle length (Blanc et al., 1999). 6000 tonnes (MMO, 2016; cited in ICES, 2017(b)). & Grant, A., 2007. Fecundity ICES, 1994. Hence, a resilience of 'Medium' will be recorded. However, gonad development appeared to be inhibited, allowing the animal to live longer but prohibited reproduction (Forsythe et al., 1994). London: Hamlyn. Sepia of­fic­i­nalis is gen­er­ally found in the east­ern North At­lantic, through­out the Eng­lish Chan­nel, and south into the Mediter­ranean Sea so it is often re­ferred to as the "Eu­ro­pean Cut­tle­fish". It has a mantle length of up to 45 cm. Perez-Losada, M., A Denis, V. & Robin, J.-P., 2001. In Morbihan Bay, south Brittany, 18 – 40 million Sepia officinalis eggs are laid on cuttletraps from March to September. Family: Sepiadae Capaz, J.C., Tunnah, L., MacCormack, T.J., Lamarre, S.G., Sykes, A.V. Aquatic Living Resources, 15(5), 303-311. 472. Therefore, recovery from any loss of the population (i.e. Suitable for raw and sensitive skin conditions. Indications La sépia est surtout indiquée dans la prise en charge des troubles digestifs (nausées, ballonnements, constipation, digestion lente) et gynécologiques (retard des règles, règles douloureuses, pertes blanches, mycoses vaginales). In this article, we will learn about the Sepia uses, dosages, and side effects. Diseases caused by protistans and metazoans. inking, was found at the highest sound levels (100-300 Hz) (Samson et al., 2014) and above 140 Db. Boletzky, S.v., 1987. The observed number of Sepia officinalis infers they can survive high water temperatures (Domingues et al., 2002). However, this means that Sepia officinalis are fished during their most vulnerable spawning period, vital for recruitment (ICES, 2003). Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01. Cephalopods are known for their intelligence (Hastie et al., 2009). Sepia officinalis has been observed to undergo a ‘sleep-like state’. A barrier to movement (e.g. Castro, B.G. Protection has also occurred through the trial of more selective fishing gears including net modifications (e.g. They have eight arms and two tentacles which both end in a tentacular club with 5-6 rows of suckers. Sepia is considered a main remedyfor women but men and children also need it at times. Female control sexual selection by cryptic female choice. Since 1st January 2013, all cephalopods have been protected under UK/EU law (A (SP) A1986, European Directive 2010/63/EU). Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 63, 19-28. Report of the study group on the life history assessment of Cephalopods. Resilience is probably ‘Medium’ and sensitivity is assessed as ‘Medium’. Frank, M.G., Waldrop, R.H., Dumoulin, M., Aton, S. & Boal, J.G., 2012. 276.]. Main Ingredients: Sepia (AKA: Sepia Officinalis, Cuttlefish) View / Add User Comments (7) Supplement Categories: Homeopathics: Herbs & Plants: User Ratings . & Mark Welch, J.L., 2018. Therefore, resistance is assessed as ‘Low’ but with 'low' confidence. Influence of salinity on embryonic development and the distribution of Sepia officinalis in the Delta Area (South Western part of The Netherlands). However, for an extended period of time, it could affect their behaviour, development and recruitment. OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System),  2020. Dunn (1999) suggested that as the market value is increased, cephalopods could becoming more popular for fishermen, which may begin to hinder Sepia officinalis stocks in the future. Sepia officinalis embryos encased in eggs can be transported for culture for up to 8.5 h in damp or dry conditions or in seawater. A change in sediment class has not, however, shown to result directly in an increase in mortality rates. It has been estimated that the temperature limits of Sepia officinalis are 10 and 30°C (Guerra, 2006). This reduces their vulnerability to predation and the impact of tides and water surges (Jackson et al., 2001). Microbes were recorded on the outside of Sepia officinalis egg cases that reduced the oxygen available to diffuse into the egg (Cronin & Seymour, 2000). Fungal infections can appear on Sepia officinalis but these are usually the result of trauma to the skin or a weakening of the immune system (Harms et al., 2006). Sepia officinalis appear to be relatively tolerant to microbial infections but once damaged due to trauma appear less resistant, resulting in a score of ‘Medium’. Keller, S., Valls, M., Hidalgo, M. & Quetglas, A., 2014. Check out these amazing baby captive bred Sepia officinalis being introduced to an exhibit at Legoland UK. A lack of an appropriate environment for offspring may result in the female choosing not to lay any eggs at all reducing potential recruitment for the following population (Bloor et al., 2013). Therefore, in culture, the optimum working salinity range is 27 – 35 PSU (Sykes et al., 2006(b)). Juveniles are also able to move and dig into and out of small and large grain sand (Boletzky, 1983). A decrease in water temperature was directly correlated with the offshore migration of Sepia officinalis during winter months (Wang et al., 2003). Wood, J.B. 1998. [1] Pagka karon wala … There is an issue of high discarding rates within the cephalopod fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 125, 3, 277. Therefore, newly hatched embryos and developing juveniles require sandy substrata to avoid predation. Paired fins run from behind the head to the tip of the body. (ed. For many females, the first phase of laying is slow and linear, ending in an exponential phase of vast egg laying (Boletzky, 1987). Biochemical indices for instantaneous growth estimation in young cephalopod Sepia officinalis L. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1-7. Immediately after exposure to the sound, spherical holes were found on the base of the hair cells and in the plasma membrane of the statocyst. Available from: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication Reports/Expert Group Report/SSGEPD/2017/01 WGCEPH - Report of the Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History.pdf, ICES. The common cuttlefish or European common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is one of the largest and best-known cuttlefish species. Scientia Marina, 74, 77-86. This lack of external recruitment also occurs due to the lack of a larval pelagic stage (Pérez-Losada et al., 2002). However, a reduction in size could make the hatchlings more vulnerable to predation, reducing recruitment (Bouchaud, 1991). The purpose of migrating back inshore to spawn is due to a preferred habitat for eggs and juveniles (Bloor et al., 2013). A 10% alcohol solution suitable for all potencies. Also known as Sepia officinalis. However, Sepia officinalis is a highly intelligent animal and is able to use other cues, such as chemical or audial, in order to track down prey and other individuals (Samson et al., 2014). Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. & Hanlon, R.T., 2014. Buoyancy is maintained by the species’ cuttlebone. Reproductive cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (l.) in the northern part of the bay of biscay. Sobrino, I., Silva, L., Bellido, J. Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), The Marine Biological Association of the UK (see contact us)© 2020 The Marine Biological Association of the UK, All Rights Reserved. Available from: http://britishseafishing.co.uk/common-cuttlefish/. This is thought to suggest that embryos can detect stimuli during development, before hatching (Romagny et al., 2012). Sepia officinalis stocks are comprised of two overlapping annual cohorts of migrating adults and newly hatched juveniles. After four months post-hatching a feeding hierarchy is clearly visible in culture (Hanlon & Messenger, 1996). Interestingly, the cuttlefish is not a fish, but a mollusk. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 145, 31-40. These agents were able to increase the survival rates of CLP-septic (cecal ligation and puncture ) rates by 66.7 – 83.33%. However, Group II breeders, reproduce during their second year of life and are able to grow for longer and reach maturity at ca 23 cm (24 cm males, 22 cm females) (Gauvrit et al., 1997). There is a similar size/weight restriction enforced in Portugal for Sepia officinalis (Hastie et al., 2009). However, as temperatures decrease in coastal waters individuals may be expected to retreat to deeper waters, with the development of eggs and recruitment potentially affected. "Sepia officinalis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. They occur predominantly on sandy-muddy bottoms from the coastline to approximately 200 m. The most common occurrence is at 100 m. Below 200 m the ambient pressure of the water is enough to implode the inner shell (Ward & Boletzky, 1984). There is, however, a minimum conservation reference size in UK waters for the octopus Octopus vulgaris of 750g (Marine Management Organisation, 2017) meaning at least one species of cephalopod is currently managed in the UK. Occurrence dataset: http://www.ericnortheast.org.uk/home.html accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-38. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 38, 117-125. W. G., 1996. Therefore, resistance is likely to be ‘Low’ but with ‘low’ confidence due to a lack of evidence. Role as consumers. Some records from the north-east and south-west of Ireland. The common cuttlefish occurs in both warm and temperate environments and migrates to and from each environment depending on the stage in the life cycle (Boletzky, 1983). Therefore, the absence of light is very important in synchronised hatching (Paulik et al., 1991) and reduced predation. In the central Cíes islands, egg abundance was highest in the most sheltered zones in depths of 8-13 m (Guerra & Castro, 1998; Guerra et al., 2016b). When removed from water fishermen are not interested in collecting the eggs. 5% Mother tincture in Aqueous Cream containing: Cuttlefish responses to visual orientation of substrates, water flow and a model of motion camouflage. Migratory patterns have been observed in the English Channel, mostly by fisheries’ landing data (Bloor et al., 2013). Males are larger than females, and slightly more frequent (Dunn, 1999). Cuttlefish (family Sepiidae) belong to a specialised group of molluscs, known as cephalopods, which also includes octopus and squid. Zoological Name: Sepia officinalis Therefore, it is probably ‘Not Sensitive’ at this benchmark level (i.e. A danger of the increase in an extended period of illumination is that more energy will have to be prioritised for camouflage and not other processes such as growth or reproduction (Buresch et al., 2015). Zaragoza, N., Quetglas, A. and Moreno, A., 2015. Dunn (1999) and Gutowska et al., (2008) reported that an increase in pCO2, and therefore a decrease in pH, appeared to have no effect on the ability to calcify the cuttlebone. A reduction in oxygen consumption is thought to protect the developing embryos from the damp and dry conditions. Bacteria also live inside the egg and provide antifouling and antimicrobial properties alongside a yolk supplying nutrients. Email [email protected] & Picton, B.E., 1997. Cephalopods also appear to have a more highly closed pressurised vascular system compared to other molluscs allowing them to distribute the O2 taken up by the gills (Häfker, 2012). They end in a tentacular club, with five to six rows of suckers, that is specially adapted for prey capture. Sepia Officinalis est commercialisé sous forme de tubes (granules et doses). Customers in the UK may wish to consider using Special Delivery service. [13][14] Giklaseklase sa IUCN ang espesye sa kinaminosang kalabotan. Outer Hebrides Biological Recording, 2018. Mating Migration for spawning occurs when an individual reaches maturity (Rodhouse & Nigmatullin, 1996). Bloor, I. This may lead to a defence response such as digging, swimming, and inking. Please check the licence conditions and … Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. Turan, C & Yaglioglu, D, 2010. Cephalopod biology in the fisheries context. [1] Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. There is also the risk that hatchlings and eggs buried or attached to the substratum will be removed along with the substratum resulting in mortality. This stock is data limited. & Melzner, F., 2008. Tissue and Cell, 30(6), 662-671. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 62, 187-191. Therefore, it is important that juveniles have the ability to attach or bury deep enough in the substratum to withstand strong water movement (Boletzky, 1983). Very small sucrose granules. Prodromal symptoms of apoplexy. Juveniles hatched in early summer, June, had a growth rate of around 1.2 mm/day. In the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean, the main commercial species is the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), although other species (S. elegans and S. orbignyana) are fished in the Mediterranean. It is thought that these bacteria are responsible for the colour change in the gland from white to bright red/orange which signifies the individual is sexually mature (Grigoni & Boucher-Rodoni, 2002). The growth rate of juveniles is generally faster than adults. Without such shelters mortality is likely to occur, reducing recruitment. Oliveira, C., Grano-Maldonado, M., Gonçalves, R., Frias, P. & Sykes, A., 2017. Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH), 27–30 March 2012, Cadiz, Spain. 2003. Aquaculture, 35, 259-264. larger mesh size). Sensitivity assessment. Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS Cephalopoda | Sepiida | Sepiidae. However, juveniles and eggs are more vulnerable due to their reduced ability to move out of the way. Sepia officinalis have also been shown to have antimicrobial agents in their body tissue and cuttlebone. A group of starved cuttlefish were able to survive for up to 21 days post-hatching (Koueta & Boucaud-camou, 2001). Resilience is probably ‘Medium’ and sensitivity is ‘Medium’. and Paracentrotus lividus, and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus”. (2017) suggested a lack of stress associated with a decrease in dissolved oxygen. However, this has the potential to deoxidize the benthic environment due to the decomposition of the material causing hypoxia (Riera et al., 2013). Such variations in morphology may affect the adaptability of Sepia officinalis to different environments. Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Sepia officinalis survived 60 mins in tanks at 50% of normal dissolved oxygen, 16.28 mg/l (Capaz et al., 2017). Jedná se o sépiový inkoust – hustou černohnědou tekutinu, kterou produkuje mořský hlavonožec v případě nebezpečí, aby se skryl nebo aby napadl kořist. If there is a heavy deposition of coarse sand then juveniles should be able to dig straight out. & Richardson, C.A., 2009. Koueta, N. & Boucaud-Camou, E., 2001. Hatchlings and juveniles are probably the most vulnerable to this pressure, as a change to muddy, coarse or hard substratum may increase their vulnerability to predation, therefore, resistance is assessed as ‘Medium’ but with ‘Low’ confidence due to a lack of evidence. Fecundity per individual is usually only 200-500 eggs and is size dependent (Boletzky, 1987). British Sea Fishing, 2018. Ce sont très souvent des sujets tristes, facilement irritables, angoissées, avec une tendance dépressive et qui se désintéressent de leur proche lors … Grigioni, S. and Boucher-Rodoni, R., 2002. Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst.Nat., ed. Hatchlings show an immediate behavioural response to visual or odour cues. Visual cues may cause a behavioural response but due to the mobility of the species, the pressure is unlikely to cause mortality or interfere with reproduction. Stasis and thereby ptosis of viscera and weariness and misery. Vie et milieu, 66(1), 81-95. ), 1983. In the English Channel, therefore, inshore migration usually occurs around the spring equinox when the daily photoperiod increases (Koueta and Boucaud-Camou, 2003). Wolfram, K., Mark, F.C., John, U., Lucassen, M. & Pörtner, H.O., 2006. Book of Woven Coverlet Designs (Draft), 1839, Daniel Stephenson (American, born England, 1823-1892), United States, Paper, sepia ink, Measuement of volume: 20.5 × 16.3 × 1.1 cm (8 1/16 × 6 7/16 × 7/16 in. Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 . Guerra, A., 2006. & Denuce, J.M., 1991. Gov.UK. Sepia officinalis feeds on prey belonging to four different groups; polychaete, cephalopods, crustacean and bony fish. Temperature also appears to affect the age at which juveniles reach sexual maturity. An Sepia officinalis in nahilalakip ha genus nga Sepia, ngan familia nga Sepiidae. Gravity and light influence the countershading reflexes of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Homeopathic sepia, or Sepia officinalis, is made from the dark, brownish-grey pigment obtained from the ink sac of the cuttlefish (phylum Mollusca)—an order of animals called Sepiida that also includes the octopus and squid. Cronin, E.R. Vibrionaceae, in the gills and oesophagus. The English Channel stock has a very high recruitment of 44 – 79 million, which is higher than many other fished cephalopods in the region (Royer et al., 2006). Hatchlings are developed enough to actively feed within hours of hatching. The species is highly mobile and therefore unlikely to be affected by smothering since it can relocate to more favourable conditions. Some populations migrate from deep to shallow waters in the summer. The common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is a relatively broad and somewhat flattened cephalopod, appearing oval in cross section. Ecology of Sepia officinalis. Sepia officinalis and many other species of cuttlefish are more social than the solitary octopuses and are Nelsons Clikpak Sepia, 30c: Amazon.co.uk: Health & Personal Care Select Your Cookie Preferences We use cookies and similar tools to enhance your shopping experience, to provide our services, understand how customers use our services so we can make improvements, and display ads. Inshore migration is governed by reproduction with individuals travelling from several to hundreds of nautical miles (Mangold, 1966). In Algarve (southern Portugal), Sepia officinalis are occasionally caught in tuna traps (Neves dos Santos et al., 2002). Effects of rearing conditions on sand digging efficiency in juvenile cuttlefish. Helios Homeopathy Ltd Spawning habitat selection by the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the Cíes Islands (Northwest Spain). In the same culture, Forsythe et al. Resistance is, therefore, likely to be ‘High’. Blanc, A., du Sel, G.P. European Journal of Protistology, 37, 427-435. Boletzky (1981) suggested that the oxygen saturation of the surrounding water must be close to full saturation for efficient development and successful sexual maturity. Cephalopod fisheries are continuing to expand in Europe, declining marine stocks (Turan & Yaglioglu, 2010). Merseyside BioBank., 2018. Homeopathy UK was founded in 1902 as the British Homeopathic Association. Resilience is probably ‘Medium' and sensitivity is, therefore ‘Medium‘. Von Boletzky, S., 1974. This shows a strong immune response to microbial infection and suggests a tolerance to them (Beuerlin & Schipp, 1998). BRERC species records within last 15 years. SEPIA OFFICINALIS. S.A., Gabr. & Golden, D.K., 1999. Sepia officinalis was able to habituate (get used to) the noise when identical sounds were played close together (Samson et al., 2014). Aquaculture Monday - Friday: 9:00am - 5:30pm (Tunbridge Wells) The cuttlebone is able to repair itself and maintains buoyancy so that cuttlefish can withstand a certain amount of internal bone injury (Boletzky & Overath, 1991). Bulletin of Marine Science -Miami, 71, 851-856. 89 - 97 Camden Rd Sensitivity assessment. Cuttlefish have a soft, unarmoured body making them vulnerable to damage and injury (Hanlon & Messenger, 1991; Cooke & Tonkins, 2015). Further analysis is yet to be undertaken but this may suggest a shift in the dominant species. Therefore, a resistance score of ‘High’ is recorded with ‘low’ confidence. Royer, J., Pierce, G.J., Foucher, E. & Robin, J.P., 2006. Resistance is probably ‘Medium’ but with ‘Low’ confidence due to a lack of available by-catch figures. Eggs are usually laid on floating or suspended structures in the water column and therefore are unlikely to be affected by heavy sediment (Bloor et al., 2013). In Kinne: Diseases of Marine Animals. 324. pp. The primary mode of fishing is trawling but cuttlefish are also caught by artisanal fisheries using pots and traps (ICES, 2003). A report on Sepia officinalis Biological Sampling at Plymouth and Brixham Fish Markets between December 2018 – June 2019. Sensitivity assessment. The statocyst is also responsive for equilibrium and movement in the water column (Solé et al., 2017). It is also one of the three most valuable resources for the English Channel Fisheries (Gras et al., 2014).

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